Representation in Women

How does the advertisement from Resident Evil Afterlife, show representation of women?


The women playing the main actor in Resident Evil Afterlife, Milla Jovovich, this straight away is doing its own advertisement as it’s not only a film that is mainly made for males but is trying to reach out to the female gender as its trying to follow the steps of the Pro Feminist industry which was an ideology challenge, in the trailer itself its portrayed that the actor is a hero and is unbeatable by the apocalypse, showing her self power and determination to what is going on around her and what she is up against, the trailer shows only the parts where she is defeating males and doing heroic actions such as flying the plane and landing on the roof saving the innocent people and escaping from the roof top, this is something that is normally common in male action films and they’re saving women instead of a woman saving the men stranded on the roof.


In the trailer, she fights many enemies and does a selection of selection of action scenes, throughout the trailer she is on the same level as the camera trying to make the equal connection between the action she is doing and the actor themselves, this can be apart of the message that the advert is trying to show, with the advert showing mainly action its trying to persuade women to also watch the film, by doing this they’re showing that women can also do the action in films and it’s not a typical zombie film where a main male takes the role, instead they’re using Milla which is allowing women too feel welcome and comfortable to watch the film. In the film trailer and the actor is holding guns at their side and in a position that they’re ready for action and any sort of combat, this allowed the representation that women are also willing to use guns and kill things and look good doing it, with her character anyway having a ‘godlike’ feel to her as nothing can defeat her, it’s also bringing men in by having the amount of skin exposed to the audience which is what they’ve intended to do mainly in the poster, yet in the trailer the skin levels are lower as she is in a combat gear which is covering it which also gives the element of surprise as you’ll need to watch it to find the scenes where she is exposing her skin. This is also an opposite audience as its showing her with her skin out in the advert which is going to advertise to men to watch as it’s a known actor with skin showing and being female, which is linked to the poster and parts of the trailer being sexualized which is not actually apart of the film itself.


Throughout the trailer the camera angles show the dominance she has through the film, from scene to scene the camera is on the same level as her and when she is threatened by someone who is higher and more dominant the camera angles change, for example when she is fighting the mutated zombie with the axe in the bathroom the camera is higher than her when the zombie is winning and when she starts to take the upper hand, the camera resets back to her level and lower when she control. This can also false advertising that the trailer shows she cannot be defeated and that she can beat anyone in her way, which in the film itself, she does get beaten and defeated by the main characters that she is trying to defeat, others she kills and other get away as she is not strong enough to beat them for whatever reason.


The film in general is advertised well, as they show everything that we need to know to be able to understand the film without knowing what is going on in the first place, at the beginning of the trailer it shows how it started and what is going on and we learn about the character and what to expect throughout the film if we chose to watch it. The film reaches out to women as well as men when it comes to advertising as they’re using a relatable name “Alice”, a simple and common name which makes it female friendly, as most action films have their female actors named something random and not an easily recognizable name, this one appeals for people to watch and recognize in the future, throughout the film and the trailer, she calls men that she encounters “Boys” which is something that shows the woman’s power and how she feels dominant over them, she makes women feel strong when watching it and allows them too also believe they can have the same feelings and power, Alice can fly planes and can do everything that normally the women can’t do and the men do for them in other action movies.


Minutes from ‘Group Meeting’

 Minutes from Group Meetings

11am: We discussed different names for the brand, trying to make something that would fit Into the Gourmet category, we first looked at other brand names and we figured out that they use surnames, so we first started to discuss other brand names and what their effect is.


11:12am: We decided on the name ‘Bernies’ as our final product name, to get to this name we discussed other brand names and what their inner meaning was, ‘Bernies’ being an older name and sounding trust worthy and having it being a classical name it links to the fact that we’re making a gourmet crisp.


11:14am: We went through the audiences that we would like to aim at and what social grading we would be also aiming at, we had a brief discussion on this and then decided to move on to the flavors as that would allow us to simplify the audience we were going to aim for depending on the flavor that we chose to make and advertise.


11:17am: Spoke about the flavors that we already knew existed and seen what they used and the mixtures they had, this was when we started to list the first flavors that we would of like to advertise for our own brand. We discussed the basic ones such as ‘Salt and Vinegar’ and then moved onto more advanced ones such as ‘Chicken and Thyme’ which was a more advanced crisp as it was not the common ones, this was also helping the fact that we were aiming at the gourmet part of the crisp.


11:21am: We decided that we would be aiming at the target audience of C2 – A which is then aimed towards the age of 35-50, this was later changed due to the fact we thought it was too broad and would be harder to do as it would mean we would have to try to aim for every worker that it would then mean aiming at multiple social classes. We changed to just doing A and B as it would mean we could focus on the gourmet audience and aiming for the higher classes.


11:21am: The price we chose was around the average price for a gourmet crisp and came out as £1.99, this was easily chosen as I had already purchased packets of gourmet crisps as research and found out that I paid around the same price for each one.


11:45am: We discussed about flavors that were already in the market and how they blended to make one flavor, and one that is commonly used in the crisp world and people buy regally, we decided to use the Balsamic and Vinegar along with Sea salt, this flavor is mainly aimed towards both genders, female and males as they’re some of the most common crisps in the industry and does not have a leaning side to which gender would prefer to buy them.


11:46am: In a quick discussion, we focused on who we were wanting to aim at, we decided to aim at people that are in labor, such as builders, plasters, plumbers and so on, this was not the final decision but was the main point for the audience that we had wanted to aim at or thought was what we should be aiming at.


11:47am: Then decided to make multiple flavors for the advert, which we knew would make the process longer but would add to the realism and would then make it that we could aim at the people we wanted to aim at, one of the flavors that we decided to choose was an alcoholic crisp flavor which was not yet decided and we were still deciding on.


11:59am: We figured that we would need to increase the price if we were to use more expensive ingredients this was also a bonus as it would support the fact that we wanted to aim at the higher classes and reach the A – B.


12pm: With the alcohol, came across the issue that we can be coming across breaking the danger of alcoholic crisp advertisement, which is the drink awareness program, this was something that we had to consider if we wanted to take on as it would mean that we would have to do extra work for getting it to work and more work on the advert its self, this would mean we would have to focus the advert mainly on the crisps and try not to get it to lean into the fact we’re adverting alcohol in our advert/adverts.


12:07pm: We decided to use ‘Prosecco’ as a flavor and to add an orange tang to it to make a new flavor completely, this was one of the alcohols that we will be using for our crisps, we’re not sure if it’s going to be the only one with alcohol or if we’re going to make one of the other flavors also have alcohol in them.


12:09pm: We then decided on adding the flavor of ‘Chicken and Thyme’ as a crisp packet, this was the last packet of crisps that we’re going to be advertising, 3 packets we agreed on and that they’re mainly going to be leaning towards the female audience.


All together we concluded that were going to making a brand called “Bernies” which we are still to speak about the logos design and come up with one, we went through a various number of names to find the one we did, purely because it’s a typical farmers name and is friendly, giving it an extra touch to the whole ‘gourmet’ theme and we all agreed on it, it was mainly influenced on the surname of a group member which we used to get the idea of what we were aiming for, it being “O’Brian’ which we just removed the ‘O’ and used the ‘Brian’ part. After that we chose one of the flavors to be Balsamic Vinegar and Sea Salt which was going to be our male and female crisp as it’s so common in the industry. When we made this idea, we looked at who we wanted to aim at which we came to agreement that we wanted to aim at A – B as we first decided A – C2 which was too many to focus on, hence the change. The price of the crisps by default for the 2 flavors; “Chicken and Thyme” and “Balsamic Vinegar and Sea Salt” are £1.99 as they’re gourmet and use rich ingredients, for the other crisp flavor which was agreed “Prosecco and Orange” has a price of around £2.50, still yet to be decided but we know it will be around this price when we agree.  The ‘Prosecco’ crisp has a slight danger to doing it, as it’s an alcohol we must be careful about the drink awareness program which is the protection on how alcohol is sold on adverts, we would have to ensure that we are not false advertising and keep the crisps as the focus and not to lean into the advertisement of selling the wine as well as the crisps. The last flavor to be discussed and agreed on was the ‘Chicken and Thyme’ which was the one that we were thinking about making another wine based crisp, due to the awareness program we just decided to save effort and keep to a more traditional flavor which we have the full freedom of making its advert with, this one was the complete choice over other meats, we looked at other meats and seen if they were put with other ones, many of the meats were crossed with a wine or a fruit to make a crisp but this one was one of the least common ones which is why we decided to use it as ours to make it something of our own.



Representation, what is representation? It’s how something is shown to us or portrayed… Taking something that has a meaning and showing it in little ways, whether it’s through a picture or a model, everything thing in the media is representing something in some form. In day to day life we represent who we are through what we wear and how we look, this is something that has taken over our lives and has become something we do to survive. It is a way of presenting to an audience in a specific way to get a specific response, with the world that we live in now, almost everything in the media world is constructed and is a representation of something…

For example, take a school fight that has happened, in order to get this published, they have to select information and construct it into a way that we can have our own view and make us question it, editing the information to make it sound slightly different to what it actually is in order to get the advertisement and entertainment that they intend to make for the readers/viewers, when this is all chosen they will then tell the story of the fight and what happened and make it look better and more understandable, whether they make a reconstruction or a close write up of what happened using the both sides of the story to make one.


It’s something that today we use most commonly as a short cut to something, most of them are based on people’s opinion and we generally believe them to be true as we’re met with them every day… In a stereotype, there are two types, one being the Archetype, which is the “ultimate stereotype”, people that make short cuts for everything and use bias opinions, being very typical using a basic definition to something without giving it thought, an example of this could be an advert that is trying to sell a new brand of cleaning product, in the advert instead of using a man in the advertisement they would use a woman as its stereotypical, it’s something that the world today think is normal and would be confused if a man was doing the advert as that’s what the media have made us think as viewers. The other type of stereotypical person is the Countertype, something that is challenging the Archetype, for example taking what people see as normal and changing it to make it different which is a way to change how we thing and can sometimes be shut down as it disturbs the public, these things try to change the way the public think and risk the advert by doing this, but if done correctly and clever enough can be accepted and change the minds of people which is what they’re aiming to do. – Used to find the definition for the key word Archetype.



Ideology is a set of ideas of beliefs, which tend to be held by something or someone with power and are held by groups in society, with the world today, they shape our cultures and what we do and don’t do.

When Analysing Representation

When analysing representation, you need to look at everything that you can see and try to think of a meaning for it or a wonder to why they chose that specific thing and what would change if it was not that. Everything in the media world is using representation whether it’s a television advert or a news article, one of the key ways of analysing was to use the ‘Barthes’ method which uses the method of finding denotations and then backing them up with a connotation, this should be the basis of the analysis, and picking things like;

  1. Costume – What were they wearing and if it symbolises something?
  2. Props – What props are used and what’s the meaning behind them?
  3. Settings – Is anything being advertised in the background?
  4. Camera Angles – Why was the angle chose and what effect does it create?
  5. Storyline (Involvement in & role) – What’s the story and does it relate?
  6. Target Audience – Who is it aimed at by the form and representations?

When looking at advertisement in the world we live in today, everything is presented the way it is for a reason, taking something and changing it so that it makes the people viewing the content feel like the article or advert is right and that they should agree with what is being said. For example, not long ago there was a riot in Birmingham where the newspapers decided to frame only the youth to look bad and only showing photos of the youth and not showing the other side of the riots… The adults that were stealing TVs and other expensive things from shops… the way they do it is by using certain shots and adding specific details to text and images to make them look as bad as they want to make them out as…

trump-on-newspaperAs the article to the left shows, a picture of Donald Trump when he’s won the election of the American President, with the picture they’ve chosen, it’s more of a relief photo of some sort, showing he’s done all the hard work to get it and he’s thinking ahead, with the title saying “OH MY GOD!”, almost trying to make the viewer agree with what is being said, trying to bounce the photo off of the text, almost like its proving something that although this is to do with something completely different to any normal day situation, if you put the work to it you can have the same output of this man… achieving what it is that you were trying to achieve in the first place.


Representation Theory

Representation Theory

A stereotype is something that is a short abbreviation of something such as; particular group or person, something which todays society has learned to live with and proceeds to use to create a more simplified world to live in, and to make titles for people even if they do not know the person or group, yet they have an idea and title already labeled for them, something which is commonly done is people make generalizations for specific people and classes in which we live with today.

Within Disability, the representation of stereotypes changes from what the person if suffering from and  from a media point of view, they’re seen as the ‘different’ kind of person, which is something that has grown over the time in which people with disabilities came onto TV and other Media related subjects, some which is still today a major stereotype for people who have a disability. Relating to working on media, and forms of TV is that “anyone with a disability is known to be a menace to others, just as much as themselves”, something which has made people with a disability not be allowed to work on set or with actors due to the apparent risks that come along with them, this is a case in which is being looked into and changed more and more over the years.

Ideology is a set of ideas that are linked to a possible belief, something which is created by a specific group that wish to give a powerful thought or idea, possibly in the form of a human.  Something that symbolises an outcome and effects the political or public people, a form of policy created by someone, that has been changed or created so that it is held to be a belief.

  • Something that has been created by the media and newspaper, powered by someone with a voice and belief is that people with a disability are ‘handicapped’ and can not work much like a ‘normal’ person, something which todays society has believed and started to follow-up, allowing comments and ideology create titles and categories for people who suffer with such conditions.

Stuat Hall’s theory consists of the idea of, representation is the link and the connection between the language and the culture and the way in which media presents us with it, something which he looked into for his research was the positioning in which the audience were, and the 3 possible ways that we read the text we see on media today. He said that there are three ways in which we can read the media, three of them being;

  1. Dominant Reading – This is the form in which whom ever is reading the text, fully accepts ‘the preferred reading’, some which most people do, with the media and the layout in which they show you the text, in his theory they think the code is normal and is a natural and transparent coding, something which most people believe and do when reading as it’s the way the media has portrayed the text to us, and the way in which we’re forced to read it.
  2. The Negotiated Reading – Someone who uses their own position and adds their own information to the text, although still using the form of ‘preferred reading’, they still think something needs to be changed and allows their opinion to change parts of the text, in which the media has purposely setup to make you think and decide for yourself how you use the information and the thoughts which you’re thinking about on the text.
  3. The Oppositional Reading – This type of reader, has a completely different perspective on the text, and is oppositional relation to the dominant code which has been created from the media in their text, leading them to reject the reading and takes it in a different form to how a negotiated and dominant reading code is processed to the audience, this is something that sometimes is used to make people question a text and make their own decision at the end, and use the text to influence their answer overall, although having an opposite opinion.

I can use this for my personal work, on how I personally want people to feel when reading my analysis on disability on TV and how, they can have their own outlook if they think otherwise, yet at the same time keep a dominant code throughout so that the majority of the people reading the text follow and believe with the facts and information I’m speaking about and using in my final write-up, while focusing on the dominant code, I can also try to include some of the oppositional coding to make people feel as if they were to add their own opinion into the place in which I’ve challenged the reader and to allow them to make their own judgment of the situation or case in which I’m speaking about.

Contextual Information

During the 1990s, politically there were 5 key events that happened, and could impact the way the media acted and worked at the time, from the early 1990s Nelson Mandela was released from prison and became the leader of the ANC, changing the representation of the people Africans, and giving them the right to become a free person and live the life of a white man, although this had already been put in place this was something that began to become equal and media became larger than ever.  Something which change the evolution of the media, was when a man name Tim Bernes-Lee, published his formal proposal for the World Wide Web, and allowed people to link work and other forms of document across the internet to each other, this allowed media to make a new form in which they communicated and meant they could cover more stories and produce more work, and not have the trouble of transporting and sending the information via another method. East and West Germany reunited after the collapse of the Soviet Union and allowed media to make a larger HQ and move to a much larger and dependant country to make the development which was needed to allow TV startings and media based work much more advanced. These were some of the most important years in the history of media, due to the internet and development of Google and Ask Jeeves were founded and allowed people to view the media online instead of on paper, and for advertising to be world-wide.

These years were a hard time for disabled people at the beginning, and for people with Disability when looking to get a job or a role in a TV related show, they were being treated with disrespect and the idea they could not do the same job as a ‘normal’, non-disabled actor can do, something which changed towards the end of the 90s was when the “Training and Equal opportunities in ITV, Channel 4 and Channel 5” act was being created as the equal right commitie had realised the lack in which disabled people were involved in media and especially TV at the time;

“Progress was also uneven and generally slow in the employment of disabled people”

At this time, more towards the end of the 90s, the representation of Disabled people had little change, due to the speed in which the act was being put into place, something which was becoming concerning where shows such as Coronation Street and East Enders, such big impacting TV Shows for people to watch, were lacking disabled people, and not enforcing to the people watching the equal and no existing difference to who they are as people, and the capabilities in which they have to do the same job as any other person.


Target Audience


The NRS Social Grading method allows the creators of content to categorise people into different classes and focus on what they are aiming to achieve and for the right selection of people. It was made 50 years ago to “classify readers” and put them into different interests and groups for marketing research.

The way that they put you in the group is the head of the household’s occupation, taking the possible highest paying job in the house and using it to put your family into a category. They don’t use the income to put you into your category, but they use it to locate the “chief income earner (CIE)”, which is then used to find your social grade in society.

The classes for the NRS are;

A – Upper Middle Class – Higher managerial, administrative or professional, further educational

B – Middle Class – Intermediate managerial, administrative or professional, teaching, nursing, further educational

C1 – Lower Middle Class – Supervisory or clerical and junior managerial, administrative or professional

C2 – Skilled Working Class – Skilled manual workers, plumbers, electricians or field work

D – Working Class – Semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers, factory workers, machine operators, production line worker

E – None Working – Casual or lowest grade workers, pensioners and others who depend on the welfare state for their income.

As an example, they will make a magazine or any sort of article and put a NRS tag on it so that they know who it is made for and who they should be aiming at. The magazine “Rogue” is a ‘A’ class magazine as its more expensive and has a more formal text base to it which is intended to make ‘A-B’ class workers purchase as it makes them feel more superior or classy. – Used to find table information. – Used for dates and information.



In the world, we have made 7 groups of people which everyone will fit into and have their own meaning to how they live life and the decisions they make. These were also used to make marketing research more simple and help us chose who we wish to aim our products at and what they effect will be on that category of person.

The way we put people into these groups is very simple but works for almost anyone, by looking at their classification which is determined by the attitude of someone and their aspirations, just these 2 simple things in some one’s life allows you to be put into 1 of the 7 groups;

The Explorer – Discovering, first to try new products and experience new things, get new ideas, indulgence and instant effect to what they’re looking at

The Aspirer – Materialistic people, new products, reviewer of something new, needs to have the status of having something new (their core need)

The Successor – Strong goals, looking for the high-end brands, wants to have the new product on the market, core need is to have control

The Reformer – Value their own judgements, don’t like to change, vintage collectors, anti-materialistic, seeks authentic brands

The Mainstreamer – Live in the everyday, family orientated people, ‘we’ rather than ‘me’, big family brands, family deal person, value for money

The Struggler – Heavy consumers of junk food, visual learner, visual watchers, physical sensations, seek escape through visual content, drawn in by appearance of something

The Resigned – Older people, Unchanging views, safety and economy, aims to survive in the everyday world, buy the same products, no change in their life, don’t change their view on something

All the above are the 7 ways in which the society have been shaped, making media marketing understand who to aim for and what that selection of people are looking for in their life and what they need. For example, posters that have lots of colour and content are for the Strugglers, they look for content that looks visually good and turns the imagination on to live their life… The most common type of person is the ‘mainstreamer’ which is the person that has no change in life and just wants to live like any other normal person in the world. These are the people that are not willing to take any risks to move on in their life and don’t want to chance losing what they already have.



Demographics, the main method to breaking things up in the marketing research, used across all platforms it’s a very simple process but covers everything and can be easily understood. The definition for the word in a media form would be “The intended group for which something is performed or marketed: the specific group to which advertising is directed”.

There is no real reason for the list that has been created as its purely to be used on how the product or content should come out as… the list of the things that they aim for are;

Age – For different products need different ages groups as not everything is made for all age groups.

Gender – Whether it’s aimed towards male or female.

Ethnicity – Which social group that content is being aimed at or belonging to.

Social Grading – What the persons social grading is, could be based off NRS grading.

Job/Income – What product certain occupations may be interested in, income reflecting on what they buy.

Educational Level – Whether it’s made for someone in further education or in a lower education and more in-formal or formal.

Family Situation/Background – Depending on the situation of your family and if that product can help you or be for you.

Interests – What hobbies or things you’re into and follow, this is one of the main ones as it allows the content to be precise.

This is the list of things that get judged every day when something new comes out as it allows them to aim at certain people and interests which is key in the media world. Used for everything in the world now when it comes to advertising, everyone knows about it and even if you did not understand it or have not seen it before, you would have used one of the 8 points to consider something or sell something on.

Roland ‘Barthes’


The Barthes method of breaking down communication through a visual channel is using the method of the ‘Semiotics’, reading the signs of what is being expressed, for example taking a poster and looking at the true meaning and what it’s trying to tell us in detail.

The method was made by a man named Roland Barthes, he made the book named, Elements of Semiology. Released in the 1967, this is when the new method of Lasswell was created, a more detailed way of analysing visual content.

The method was based off, taking something from a picture and looking at the deeper meaning of it, looking at each picture used in the picture, why it was used and the effect of the person viewing it, looking at the literal meaning of it and what the effect is. Its original use was going to be for analysing pictures and the colours used and how the picture makes you think. Instead it could also be used in text based content, looking at why such words were used and what was the difference on using that word.

Everything was done by the rule of the level of signification on the content that you were analysing and trying to unpuzzle. The highest being ‘Denotation’ which is the signifier is the form of which the person can see, touch or smell, along with hear and taste. When this was found, the next step was to use the signified method which is where you find what it represents and the mental construct is gives the person instead of it just being the thing itself.

Examples of the Denotation and Connotation are mainly on posters and showing why that certain picture was used and the meaning behind it, what the effect of it was and what it makes the viewer thing about the poster in general;

  • Suit – Power, Elegance, Formality, Fear, Unknown, Fortune
  • Mask – Secret, Disguise, Unknown, Fear, Power, Feared
  • Skull – Death, Halloween, Darkness, People, Dead
  • Evening Dress – Elegance, Power, Upper class, Formality, Fortune
  • Gun – Violence, Secret, Unknown, Power, Death, Fear04-spectre_james-bond_poster

All the above is what the method uses to find the inner message to the content that is being analysed, looking at the meaning for everything that is being shown to us and why it has been used and trying to put it all together to make out what we think is trying to be told to us. For the list, above it’s for the film James Bond; Spectre. –  Used the find the dates of when the method was released.